On June 15, 2023, the Supreme Court held that the Bankruptcy Code unambiguously abrogates the sovereign immunity of federally recognized Indian tribes. Therefore, tribes may not raise sovereign immunity as a defense to multiple portions of the Bankruptcy Code. Many tribal enterprises and their business partners, for the first time, will need to consider the legal implications of bankruptcy on their business arrangements. The immediate significance of this case is that tribes may be subject to damage claims for violating the automatic stay. However, there may be broader implications for tribal business dealings from this case.
Yesterday, in Sheen v. Wells Fargo (S258019), the California Supreme Court resolved an important issue for the mortgage servicing industry. The court unanimously held that lenders owe no tort duty to process, review, and respond to a borrower’s loan modification application. …
Continue Reading The California Supreme Court Rules that Lenders Have No General Tort Duty to Process, Review, and Respond to a Borrower’s Application for a Loan Modification
In May 2019, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) proposed new rules to amend and expand Regulation F, to further regulate the debt collection industry and those connected to it. It was meant to supplement the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA).
These rules are now final and scheduled to go into effect on November 30, 2021.…
On August 11, 2021, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (the “FFIEC”) issued new guidance on risk management principles for access to and authentication of electronic funds transfers for the first time in over a decade, titled Authentication and Access to Financial Institution Services and Systems (the “New Guidance”). The New Guidance effectively replaces the FFIEC’s prior guidance on this topic, including its original guidance issued in 2005, Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment (the “Original Guidance”), and the supplement issued in 2011 in response to increased fraud in Internet-based financial transactions (the “Supplement,” and together with the Original Guidance, the “Guidance”). The Guidance was intended to set regulatory expectations for financial institutions offering Internet-based financial services to both commercial and consumer customers.
Continue Reading An Enhanced Standard of Commercial Reasonableness for Security Procedures? The FFIEC Updates Its Authentication Guidance for Internet-Based Financial Services
Last week, in our first of what we expect to be many articles in the series “Bankruptcy On Ice”, we wrote about the unprecedented suspensions of proceedings enacted in several major chapter 11 bankruptcies in response to the temporary store closures and critical protective measures being imposed to fight the spread of COVID-19.
Decisions by the bankruptcy courts presiding over the Modell’s Sporting Goods, Pier 1 Imports, and Craftworks cases have demonstrated how far bankruptcy courts are willing to extend their equitable powers to put bankruptcy matters on ice while debtors are unable to conduct liquidation sales or otherwise advance their cases. Notably, until stores are allowed to reopen, some bankruptcy courts have allowed debtors to defer payment of post-petition rent under unexpired leases despite clear provisions in the Bankruptcy Code prohibiting such payment holidays. …
Continue Reading Bankruptcy on Ice II – an Early Spring Thaw for Bankruptcy Courts?
On April 1, 2020, Ohio’s Governor issued Executive Order 2020-08D, a copy of which is linked here. Issued pursuant to the Governor’s implied police powers to address the economic impact of COVID-19, the Executive Order requests that commercial landlords and their lenders (including their servicers) take certain steps to provide relief to small business commercial tenants and commercial real estate borrowers.
SUMMARY OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 2020-08D
The Executive Order is framed as a “request” that commercial landlords and lenders take certain actions–not an order commanding that they do so. Further, the Executive Order does not suspend any federal or state law. …
Continue Reading Ohio Issues Executive Order Requesting Relief for Small Business Tenants and Commercial Real Estate Borrowers
On Monday, November 18, 2019, the Office of the Comptroller of Currency (“OCC”) announced that it is seeking public comment on a proposed rule to clarify the “valid when made” doctrine in the wake of a decision from the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Madden v. Midland Funding, that undermined and largely rejected it. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NPRM”) can be found here. This rulemaking could restore certainty regarding the legality and enforceability of loans that comprise a significant component of lending activity.
The “valid when made” doctrine is a longstanding rule that a loan’s interest rate remains legal and enforceable as long as it was legal when the loan was made, regardless of whether a third party ultimately ends up holding the loan. In Madden, the Second Circuit undermined, and largely rejected, the doctrine and thus called into question the legality and enforceability of a large swath of the consumer debt. The loans challenged in Madden were originated by banks and subsequently sold, assigned, or otherwise transferred to non-bank entities. …
Continue Reading OCC Seeks Comment as Part of New Rulemaking to Clarify “Valid When Made” Doctrine
2018 has a tough act to follow, after a 2017 full of momentous developments—starting with a new Administration and wrapping up with a showdown over the right to serve as Acting Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) (a fight that continues as of this writing, as discussed below).
But 2018 is unlikely to be a quiet year. In addition to developments in the CFPB leadership battle and other litigation, the year is expected to bring developments such as effective and compliance dates for major regulations on data protection, Bank Secrecy Act/anti-money-laundering (BSA/AML), mortgage servicing, and other topics, and could bring changes in supervisory focus at multiple federal agencies. …
Continue Reading Fasten Your Seatbelts: Are You Ready for Another Eventful Year?
This month marks the one-year anniversary of the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)’s long-awaited beneficial ownership rule, which imposes certain Customer Identification Program (CIP) requirements under the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA). FinCEN proposed the rule in 2014 and finalized it in May 2016. FinCEN has also issued Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions, which provides guidance in understanding and implementing the new rule. All financial institutions subject to the rule must begin complying with it no later than May 11, 2018.
The rule will impose new compliance obligations on federally regulated banks, federally insured credit unions, mutual funds, brokers or dealers in securities, futures commission merchants, and introducing brokers in commodities. …
Continue Reading Key Steps in One-Year Countdown to Compliance with FinCEN’s Beneficial Ownership Rule
The future of the CFPB is one of the hottest hot topics in the post-election environment. Created by Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act (DFA), the CFPB has been the centerpiece of consumer-related financial reform — and the focus of controversy from industry stakeholders.
Fate of CFPB and Its Leadership
- Will the CFPB be immediately disbanded by the new Congress and President?